Image Credit: ‘Forest Bathing’ (2023), Arboretum

Engaging Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Young People through Wild Pedagogies

This is the fourth and final blog in the series which seeks to explore, through an extensive review of the literature, the proposition that ‘wild pedagogies’, as an element of a wider framework of regenerative education, have the potential to reengage CALD young people in the senior years of schooling.

In Blog 1, the crises of the Anthropocene were introduced to contextualise the experiences of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) young people in Australian education settings. In Blog 2, I examined some of the challenges and barriers that CALD young people face in the senior secondary years, and the Flexible Learning Programs (FLPs) that show promise in reengaging CALD young people (Ollif & Couch 2005:44; Allen et al. 2018:1). In Blog 3, the concept of wild pedagogy was introduced as a recent conceptual framework under regenerative education (Buckton et al. 2023:826; Jickling et al. 2018:77-105). I discussed the work of the Crex Crex Collective in providing the theoretical foundations to the pedagogy and explored their six key touchstones as a framework (Jickling et al. 2018:77-105). The themes of place-based learning and experiential learning were discussed, showing their facilitation of individualised learning, a sense of agency, well-being, relationality, and curiosity. Using these principles as pillars, Blog 4 will discuss the intersections between wild pedagogies as a concept and CALD young people, by exploring themes of cultural connection, well-being, and individualised learning.

Cultural Connection and Wellbeing

One way in which wild pedagogies might offer solutions in re-engaging CALD young people is through their capacity to foster cultural connections and well-being. CALD young people, particularly those identified as at-risk or refugees, come from diverse cultural backgrounds and experience wide-ranging challenges during acculturation that require individualised support (Godden et al. 2022:3; Van Kooy & Butler 2021:2). These students often report a lack of belongingness, and risk becoming disengaged from education (Allen et al. 2018:1; Sari 2012:1).  Influential factors include cultural acceptance, relationships with friends and peers, and the support of parents and the school climate itself (Miller et al. 2017:339; Khawaja & Howard 2019:110; Allen et al. 2018:1; Kovinthan 2016:141).

Flexible Learning Programs (FLPs) show potential in promoting reengagement and a sense of belonging through offering individualised, relational, and culturally sensitive learning (Thomas et al. 2017:443; McGregor & Mills 2011:859). With the benefits of FLPs in mind, the concept of ‘wild pedagogy’ similarly promises to facilitate belongingness, through its provision of experiential learning and place-based learning (Jickling et al. 2018:69). Six possible intersections are explored below.

‘Wild pedagogy’ as a concept could benefit CALD students’ engagement in their senior secondary years by facilitating a sense of belonging. CALD young people facing the challenges of the post-migration phase report a lack of belonging, which is related to factors at the individual, micro and macro level (Allen et al. 2018:5). In the study conducted by Green (2022:84), she discusses the ability of ‘wild pedagogy’ to foster a deep connection with nature and the environment, which promotes a sense of belonging and connection. Moreover, in Krigstin et al.’s (2013:1375) research on the application of the concept to higher education,  students identified a sense of connection, comfort, and belongingness when they were outdoors. Furthermore, there is much literature dedicated to the strengths of nature-based activities in improving refugees’ sense of belonging (Rishbeth et al. 2019:125; Herslund 2012:233; Hurly & Walker 2017:260). Indeed, Hurly and Walker’s (2017:260) study found widespread benefits of being outdoors on refugees’ sense of belonging, with one participant stating:

The world is the same. There is no big difference, I felt the camping experience helped me to be part of the country, and enjoy it, and settle in it. (Hurly & Walker 2017:271)

This deep connection with nature, being an essential component of ‘wild pedagogies’, permeates the barriers to inclusion by reminding us of the holistic perception of the environment, to which we all belong.

Furthermore, research literature points to the ability of ‘wild pedagogy’ to promote students’ sense of well-being. CALD young people often experience traumatic events during the migration and resettlement process which is widely understood as detrimental to their well-being (Terhaag & Guy 2020; ECU 2023; BNLA 2023). ‘Wild pedagogy’ and its use of the environment as its classroom has been shown to increase students’ well-being (Krigstin et al. 2023:9).

There is much research on the benefits of outdoor education on refugee students’ well-being (NCM 2017:25; Miller et al. 2022:748; Poulsen et al. 2020:7542). Indeed, studies on refugee students living in Eco-Villages in Denmark boast benefits on relationships, mental health, and well-being (Poulsen et al. 2020:7542).

The concept of ‘wild pedagogy’ may also facilitate cultural understanding and inclusivity. CALD young people come from diverse cultural backgrounds and may have minimal understanding of a new country’s culture (Allen et al. 2018:4). Immersion outdoors encourages critical reflection on cultural perspectives, and challenges dominant cultural ideas (Krigstin et al. 2023:7). As highlighted by Flores (2022), reflection is a key component of outdoor education as it allows for time and connections between outdoor, experiential learning and the daily lives of students. Moreover, in a study on urban outdoor programs conducted by Grimwood et al. (2017:214), they examine the capacity of such programs to “enhance nature connectedness among children but also engender personal and community transformations that extend into other life domains”. These “cultural shifts” might be enabled through the application of ‘wild pedagogy’ principles (Grimwood et al. 2017:210).

Individualised Learning and Language Support

A second way in which the concept of ‘wild pedagogies’ might offer solutions in re-engaging CALD young people in their senior secondary years includes its ability to provide individualised learning and language development. A student’s sense of belonging relates to their academic performance, educational background, and English proficiency (Allen et al. 2018:1; Sari 2012:1). With traditional schooling often unable to meet the English proficiency needs of CALD young people, individualised education, such as that provided in ‘wild pedagogies’ might offer a solution (Schweitzer et al. 2021:594). A strength of ‘wild pedagogies’, as shown by Peterson (2023:51) and Velempini and Kethoilwe (2022:166) is its provision of individualised and holistic learning. Peterson (2021:51), in his study on the application of wild pedagogy principles to an experiential learning program for disengaged high school students, finds the reduced teacher ratios beneficial for the holistic learning of students. Furthermore, in the study conducted by Velempini & Kethoilwe (2022:166) on the application of ‘wild pedagogy’ principles to teacher education, they find learning is enhanced because the outdoor environment promotes individualised learning through encouraging individual interpretations and natural curiosity. Thus, CALD students might benefit from the learner-centred setting that underpins ‘wild pedagogies’.

This individualised and learner-centred environment offers CALD young people the opportunity to develop language skills. Much research literature attests to the benefits of outdoor settings in developing students’ English skills, particularly for those who are just beginning (Lien 2023:3230; Cambridge 2023; Scott et al. 2022:12038). Lien (2023:3230) finds the outdoor setting beneficial for English speaking skills for international students, as the outdoor environment increases staff and student interactions and conversations, boosts confidence and motivation and increases engagement in outdoor contexts. Scott et al. 2022:12038) found similar results in their study on language and communication outcomes for children from time spent outdoors. They highlight that the immersive environment invites the “exploration, creativity and physical challenge that supports the development of these fundamentally important aspects” (Scott et al. 2022:12038).

Building on this, Milena (2017) in her English Made Simple podcast discusses the benefits of learning English through outdoor activities as it promotes key vocabulary used in daily conversations. Moreover, a study on teenagers learning English as a foreign language outdoors, found students had increased levels of confidence, conversations were more reflective of real-life vocabulary, and the learning methods were more engaging (Mhyre et al. 2023:835). This research suggests that the outdoor environment promotes confidence and motivation when learning English communication skills.

Finally, the concept of ‘wild pedagogies’ might benefit CALD students through cross-cultural exchange and inclusivity. As discussed by Straker et al. (2017:109), ‘wild pedagogies’ integrate curriculum and community involvement so that learning is “relevant, culturally sensitive, and inclusive”.

Image Credit: ‘Cultural garden are connecting school kids to Mackay’s indigenous history’, (2022), ABC News

Cutter-Mackenzie (2009:122) discusses the language and culture benefits for students within the Multicultural Schools Gardens programs which run in disadvantaged schools. She finds that not only does the program facilitate “real-life conversations” (Cutter-Mackenzie 2009:130), but it provides a “space for children to talk about their culture whilst speaking and learning English at the same time” (Cutter-Mackenzie 2009:129). This “slowing down” of learning and casual interactions also increased teachers’ cultural awareness and appreciation (Cutter-Mackenzie 2009:131). Brooks et al. (2022:392) conducted a study on the development of the critical consciousness of diverse high school students within outdoor school programs. Students reported widespread notions of inclusivity and relationship development among peers (Brooks et al.2022:403). The outdoor setting in ‘wild’ pedagogical practices may facilitate cross-cultural exchanges and inclusivity, allowing the sharing of perspectives and experiences to increase belongingness (Brooks et al. 2023:401).


This series of blogs has explored the proposition that ‘wild pedagogies’, as an element of a wider framework of regenerative education, have the potential to reengage CALD young people in the senior years of schooling. CALD and refugee young people face unique challenges and barriers in the education setting, with the experience of discrimination and racism, and communication barriers, among other factors, negatively impacting on their sense of belonging. There is an emergent body of research demonstrating the benefits of wild pedagogy approaches in promoting student wellbeing, engagement, communication skills and cross-cultural awareness. This concept would benefit from further research regarding the application of wild pedagogy principles in practical settings, and in examining its use for future education frameworks.


Abacioglu C, Epskamp S, Fischer A & Volman M, (2022), ‘Effects of multicultural education on student engagement in low and high concentration classrooms: the mediating role of student relationships’, in, Learning Environments Research, accessed 7 September 2023.

ABS (20176), ‘Cultural Diversity in Australia’, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, ACT.

ABS (2021), ‘Australia’s Population by Country of Birth’, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra

ABS (2021), ‘Permanent Migrants in Australia’, Australian Bureau of Statistics, accessed 23 September 2023

ACARA (2022), ‘Student Attendance’, Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority, accessed 18 September 2023

ACARA (n.d), ‘Planning for Student Diversity’, Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority, accessed 7 September 2023

ACARA (n.d), ‘Year 12 certification rates’, Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority, accessed 18 September 2023

ACTA (2020), ‘How many English as an Additional Language or Dialect (EAL/D) Learners are there in Australian Schools?’, Australian Council of TESOL Associations, accessed 7 September 2023

AGDHA (2023), ‘Migration Program planning levels’, Australian Government Department of Home Affairs, accessed 23 September 2023

AIFS (2016), ‘Humanitarian migrants ‘Building A New Life’ in Australia’, Australian Government Institute of Family Studies, accessed 23 September 2023

Allen K, Kern M L, Vella-Brodrick D, Hattie J & Waters L (2018), ‘What schools Need to Know about Fostering School Belonging: a Meta-Analysis’, Educational Psychology Review, 30:1-34

Amina F, Barnes M & Saito E (2023), ‘Language and belonging in Australian schools: perspectives and experiences of families from refugee backgrounds’, in, International Journal of Inclusive Education,

Armon C (2021), ‘Regenerative Collaboration in Higher Education: A Framework for Surpassing Sustainability and Attaining Regeneration’, in, Philosophies, 6(82):1-11.

Berg B, Poldner K, Sjoer E & Wals A (2022), ‘Practices, Drivers and Barriers of an Emerging Regenerative Higher education in the Netherlands – A Podcast Based Inquiry’, in, Sustainability, 14(9138):1-20

Berg B V D (host) (2023), ‘The University as Constructive Disruptor’, [podcast], The Regenerative Education Podcast,  accessed 27 September 2023

Berg B V D, Poldner K, Sjoer E & Wals A E J (2022), ‘’Sweet Acid’ An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis of Students Navigating Regenerative Higher Education’, in, Education Sciences, 12(533):1-20

Bergquist D, Hempel C A & Green J L (2019), ‘Bridging the gap between theory and design: A proposal for the regenerative campus development at the Swedish university of agricultural sciences’, in, International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 20(3):548-566

Benitez F F, Paredes M E R, Collado-Ruano J, Teran E F H, Ibarra G D L (2019), ‘Environmental education program in Ecuador, theory, practice, and public policies to face global change in the Anthropocene’, in, Essay Endorsement in Public Education, 27(105):859-880,

Block K, Cross Z, Riggs E & Gibbs L (2013), ‘Supporting schools to create an inclusive environment for refugee students’, in, International Journal of Inclusive Education, 18(12):1337-1355

BNLA (2023), ‘Research Highlights’, Building a New Life in Australia: A Longitudinal Study on Humanitarian Migrants, Australian Institute of Family Studies, accessed 23 September 2023

Butson M & Jeanes R (2021), ‘From ‘pushed out’ to reengaged: experiences from a flexible learning programme’, in, Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, pp.1-11

Braidotti R (2018), ‘A theoretical Framework for the Critical Post humanities’, in, Theory, Culture and Society, 36(6):31-61

Braun V & Clarke V (2006), ‘Using thematic analysis in psychology’, in, Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2):77-101

Brooks S D, Braun S M & Prince D (2022), ‘Critical Consciousness in High School Outdoor Experiential Environmental Education’, in, Journal of Experiential Education, 45(4):392-412

Brown J, Miller J & Mitchell J (2006), ‘Interrupted schooling and the acquisition of literary: Experiences of Sudanese refugees in Victoria secondary schools’, in,  Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 29(2):150-162

Buckton S J, Fazey I, Sharpe B, Om E S, Doherty B, Ball P, Denby K, Bryant M, Lait R, Bridle S, Cain M, Carmen E, Collins L, Nixon N, Yap C, Connolly A, Fletcher B, Frankowska A, Gardner G, James A, Kendrick I, Kluczkovski A, Mair A, Morris B & Sinclair M (2023), ‘The Regenerative Lens: A Conceptual Framework for Regenerative Socio-Ecological Systems’, One Earth, 6(7):824-842

Cain M, Lakhani A & Istvandity L (2015), ‘Short- and long-term outcomes for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) and at-risk communities in participatory music programs: A systematic review’, in, An International Journal for Research, Policy and Practice, 8(2):105-124

Cambridge (2023), ‘Learn English through outdoor Play’, Cambridge English, accessed 5 October 2023

Camrass K (2023), ‘Regenerative Futures: Eight Principles for Thinking and Practice’, Journal of Futures Studies, 28(1)

Canalis I (2022), ‘Rewilding and decolonising go together. A conversation with Pupak Hagighi’, Global Ecovillage Network, accessed 21 September 2023.

Cardozo L M (2023), ‘Walking the talk: autoethnographic reflections on co-creating regenerative education within international development studies’, Third World Quarterly, 44(7):1625-1642

Chen S & Schweitzer, (2019), ‘The Experience of Belonging in Youth from Refugee Backgrounds: A Narrative Perspective’, in, Journal of Child and Family Studies, 28:1977-1990

CMY (2019), ‘Homework Clubs’, Centre for Multicultural Youth.

Cole D R & Malone K (2019), ‘Environmental education and philosophy in the Anthropocene’, Australian Journal of Environmental Education, 35(3):157-162

Correa-Velez I, Gifford S M & Barnett A G (2010), ‘Longing to belong: Social Inclusion and wellbeing among youth with refugee backgrounds in the first three years in Melbourne, Australia’, in, Social Science & Medicine, 71(8):1399-1408

Crawford R (2017), ‘Creating unity through celebrating diversity: A case study that explores the impact of music education on refugee background students’, in, International Journal of Music Education, 35(3):343-356

Crawford R (2019), ‘Socially Inclusive practices in the music classroom: The impact of music education used as a vehicle to engage refugee background students’, in, Research Studies in Music Education, 42(2):248-269

Crutzen P J & Stoermer E F (2000), ‘The “Anthropocene”’, in, IGBP Newsletter, 41:17-18.

Cutter-Mackenzie A (2009), ‘Multicultural School Gardens: Creating Engaging Garden Spaces in Learning about Language, Culture, and the Environment’, in, Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, 14:122-135

Dakhi O, Jama J, Irfan D, Ishak (2020), ‘Blended Learning: A 21st Century Learning Model at College’, The International Journal of Multi Science, 1(7):50-65

Davies T (2022), ‘‘But we’re not a multicultural school!’: locating intercultural relations and reimagining intercultural education as an act of ‘coming-to-terms-with our routes’, The Australian Educational Researcher, 50:991-1005.

Davis J, Moulton A, Sant L V & Williams B (2019), ‘Anthropocene, Capitalocene … Plantationcene?: A Manifesto for Ecological Justice in an Age of Global Crises’, in, Geography Compass, 13(5):1-15.

Diwakar V (2023), ‘Breaking the link between ‘polycrisis’ and poverty’, in, Institute of Development Studies, accessed 3 September 2023.

ECCV (2023), ‘Glossary of Terms’, Ethnic Communities Council of Victoria, accessed 23 September 2023

ECU (2023), ‘Migrants wanting to call Australia home still face significant challenges’, Edith Cowan University, Perth, accessed 23 September 2023

Esteves A M (2018), ‘Peace education for the Anthropocene? The contribution of regenerative ecology and the ecovillages movement’, in, Journal of Peace Education, 17(1):26-47

Flores K S (2022), ‘Reflect on Outdoor Exploration’, Hello Insight Blog, accessed 5 October 2023

Folke C, Polasky S, Rockstrom J, Galaz V, Westley F, Lamont M, Scheffer M, Osterblom H, Carpenter R S, Chapin S III, Seto K, Weber E U, Crona I B, Daily G C, Dasgupta P, Gaffney O, Gordon L J, Hoff H, Levin S A, Lubchenco J, Steffen W & Walker B (2021), ‘Our future in the Anthropocene biosphere’, in, Ambio, 50:834-869.

Forest Bathing (2023), ‘Arboretum’, Harvard University Events,

Freud B (2023), ‘What might regenerative practice look like in education?’, in, Coconut Thinking: co-creators of emergent learning experiences, accessed 19 August 2023,

Gaia Education (2020), ‘A Regenerative Education for our times’, in, Resilience, accessed 27 September 2023

GIER (2022), ‘Report on Racism in Australian Schools No Surprise to Education Researchers: GIER Researcher Response’, Griffith Institute for Educational Research, accessed 25 September 2023

Godden N, Wijekoon D & Wrigley (2022), ‘Social (in) justice, climate change policy in Western Australia’, in, Environmental Sociology, 8(4):377-387

Gough A (2021), ‘Education in the Anthropocene’, RMIT University, accessed 18 September 2023

Gordon E, Davila F & Riedy C (2023), ‘Regenerative agriculture: a potentially transformative storyline shared by nine discourses’, in, Sustainability Science, 18:1833-1849.

Green C (2022), ‘The Slippery Bluff as a Barrier or a Summit of Possibility: Decolonising Wild Pedagogies in Alaska Native Children’s Experiences on the Land’, in, Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, 25:83-101

Green J (2022), ‘Comparative capitalisms in the Anthropocene: a research agenda for green transition’, in, New Political Economy, 28(3):329-346.

Guajardo U M G, Kelly C, Bond K, Thomson R & Slewa-Younan S (2019), ‘An evaluation of the teen and Youth Mental Health First Aid training with a CALD focus: an uncontrolled pilot study with adolescents and adults in Australia’, International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 13(73):1-15

Hempsall C (2022), ‘Is the theory of Wild Pedagogies Precisely the Utopian Philosophy the Anthropocene needs?’,  in, Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, 25:222-236

Henig D & Knight D M (2023), ‘Polycrisis: Prompts for an emerging worldview’, in, Anthropology Today, 39(2):3-6.

Herslund L (2021), ‘Everyday life as a refugee in a rural setting – What determines a sense of belonging and what role can the local community play in generating it?’, in, Journal of Rural Studies, 82:233-241

Hurly J & Walker G J 92017), ‘When You See Nature, Nature Give You Something Inside: The Role of Nature-based Leisure in Fostering Refugee Well-Being in Canada’, in, Leisure Sciences, 41(4):260-277

Independent Australia (2019), ‘Racism and multicultural Australia’, (2019), Independent Australia, accessed 28 September 2023

IUCN (2021), ‘The Benefits and Risks of Rewilding’, in, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Switzerland

Jensen A, Heggen M P, Jickling B & Blenkinsop S (2022), ‘Wild Pedagogies for Change’, in, Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, 25:5-12

Jickling B, Blenkinsop S, Timmerman N & Sitka-Sage M (eds.), (2018), Wild Pedagogies: Touchstones for Re-Negotiating Education and the Environment in the AnthropocenePalgrave McMillan Publishers, Canada,

JSS (2016), ‘Re-engaging disadvantaged learners in education, training and employment’, Position Paper: Responding to VET Reforms in Victoria, Jesuit Social Services, accessed 19 September 2023

Kaukko M, Wilkinson J & Kohli R (2021), ‘Pedagogical love in Finland and Australia: a study of refugee children and their teachers’, in, Pedagogy, Culture and Society, 30(5):732-747

Khawaja N, Allan E & Schweitzer R (2020), ‘The Role of School Connectedness and Social Support in the Acculturation in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Youth in Australia’, in, Australian Psychologist, 53(4):355-364

Khawaja N & Howard G (2021), ‘Understanding Samir: educational difficulties of a high school student from refugee background’, in, Educational and Developmental Psychologist, 38(1):11-120

Khangura R, Ferris D, Wagg C & Bowyer J (2023), ‘Regenerative Agriculture – A Literature Review on the Practices and Mechanisms Used to Improve Soil Health’, in, Sustainability, 15(2338):1-15.

Kolb D (2015), Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development, 2nd edn, Pearson Education Publishers LTD

Kovinthan T (2016), ‘Learning and Teaching with Loss: Meeting the needs of Refugee Children Through Narrative Inquiry’, in, Studies of Migration, Integration, Equity and Cultural Survival, 10(3):141-155

Kubiszewski I, Ward C, Pickett K & Costanza R (2023), ‘The complex relationship between economic inequality and biodiversity: A scoping review’, in, The Anthropocene Review,

Krigstin S, Cardoso J, Kayadapuram M & Wang M L (2023), ’Benefits of Adopting Wild Pedagogies in University Education’, in, Forests, 14(1375):1-20

Langran E & DeWitt J (eds.) (2020), Navigating Place-Based Learning: Mapping for a Better World, Palgrave Macmillan Publishers, Switzerland

Lawrence J A, Kaplan I, Korkees D, Stow M & Dodds E A (2023), ‘Perspectives and feelings of refugee children from Syria and Iraq about places and relational as they resettle in Australia’, in, Transcultural Psychiatry, 60(1):52-61

Lawrence M, Homer-Dixon T, Janzwood S, Rockstrom J, Renn O & Donges J (2023), ‘Global Polycrisis: The causal mechanisms of crisis entanglement’, Technical Paper, Version 1.1, Cascade Institute,

Lawrence M, Janzwood S & Homer-Dixon T (2022), ‘What is a Global Polycrisis? Version 2.0. Discussion Paper, Cascade Institute.

Lehtonen A, Salonen A & Cantell H (2018), ‘Climate Change Education: A New Approach for a World of Wicked Problems’, in, Cook J W (eds.), Sustainability, Human Well-being, and the Future of Education, Palgrave Macmillan, Cham

Leif E, Alfrey L & Grove C (2021), ‘Challenges for delivering inclusive education in Australia’, Teacher Magazine, accessed 26 September 2023

Leung S, Brenna N, Freeburn T, Waugh W & Christie R (2022), ‘Youth Survey Report 2022’, Mission Australia, Sydney, NSW

Lien C (2023), ‘The Effectiveness of Outdoor Learning on First Year English Majored Students Speaking skill at Dong Nai Technology University’, in, International Journal of Social Science and Human Research, 6(6):3230-3234

Linner A (2023), A Polycrisis of climate change, food, insecurity, socioeconomic inequality, and conflict intensity,  Lund University, Sweden, [Thesis Paper], accessed 3 September 2023

MacDonald F (2017), ‘Positioning young refugees in Australia: media discourse and social exclusion’, in, Educational Journal of Inclusive Education, 21(1):1182-1195

MacEachren Z (2022), ‘Reflections on Campfire Experiences as Wild Pedagogy’,  Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, 25:102-119

Major J, Wilkinson J & Langat K (2013), ‘Sudanese young people or refugee background in rural and regional Australia: Social capital and educational success’, in, Australian and International Journal of Rural Education, 23(3):95-105

Marcus K, Balasubramanian M, Short S & Wong W (2022), ‘Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD): terminology and standards in reducing healthcare inequalities’, in, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 46(1):7-9

Marsh K (2012), ‘”The beat will make you courage”: The role of secondary school music programs in supporting young refugees and newly arrived immigrants in Australia’, in, Research Studies in Music Education, 34(2):93-111

McGregor G & Mills M (2011), ‘Alternative education sites and marginalised young people: ‘I wish there were more schools like this one’’, in, International Journal of Inclusive Education, 16(8)843-862

Milena (2017), ‘Learning English Through Outdoor Activities’, [podcast], English Made Simple, accessed 7 October 2023

Miller E, Ziaian T & Esterman A (2017), ‘Australian school practices and the education experiences of students with a refugee background: a review of the literature’, International Journal of Inclusive Education, 22(4):339-359

Miller E, Ziaian T, Anstiss H & Baak M (2022), ‘Ecologies of Resilience for Australian High School Students from Refugee Backgrounds: Quantitative Study’, in, International Journal of Environmental Res Public Health, 19(2):748

MSEI (2022), ‘Count Me In’, Melbourne Social Equity Institute, The University of Melbourne, accessed 5 October 2023

Myhre T S, Dewaele J M, Fiskum T A & Holand A M (2023), ‘Anxiety and enjoyment among young teenagers learning English as a foreign language outdoors: a mixed-methods study’, in, Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 17(4):827-844

National Geographic (2020), ‘Place-Based Learning’, Education Blog National Geographic, accessed 5 October 2023

NCM (2017), Nature-Based integration: Nordic experiences and examples, Nordic Council of Ministers, Denmark,

Nguyen H L & Kuyini A B (2023), ‘Implementation of Social Inclusion to Support Refugee Students’ Well-Being in Victoria, Australia: A Study of School Reports and Policies’, in, The Educational Forum

OECD (2018), The Future of Education and Skills: Education 2030, Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, France

OECD (2023), OECD Education Policy Outlook in Australia, Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, France

OEG (2021), ‘The Outdoor Education Group’, The Outdoor Education Group, accessed 5 October 2023

O’Driscoll T, Banting L K, Borkoles E, Eime R & Polman R (2014), ‘A Systematic Literature Review of Sport and Physical Activity Participation in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) Migrant Populations’, in, Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 16:515-530

Olliff L & Couch J (2005), ‘Pathways and pitfalls: The journey of refugee young people in and around the education system n Greater Dandenong, Victoria’, in, Youth Studies Australia, 24(3):42-46

O’Rourke M (2023), ‘The Age of the Polycrisis’, Risk Management, 70(1):3.

Osawa A (2021), ‘Overcoming Barriers to Access and Complete the Alternative Learning System among Adolescents’, UNICEF, Philippines .

Osipova A & Lao R (2022), ‘Breaking the Cycle of Failure for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners with Exceptional Needs: Recommendations for Improvement of Teacher Preparation Programs’, in, Educational Research and Development Journal, 25(1):1-25.

Pearce M, Gray J & Campbell-Evans G (2010), ‘Challenges of the secondary school context for inclusive teaching’, in, Issues in Educational Research, 20(3):294-313

Perso T (2012), Cultural Responsiveness and School Education, Menzies School of Health Research, Centre for Child Development and Education, Darwin, NT.

Peterson K B (2021), ‘Reflections on place, Place-Based Education and Wild Pedagogies in Denmark: A Schooner Project’, in, International Journal of the International Society for Teacher Education, 25(1):48-61

Pham L T T, Berecki-Gisolf J, Clapperton A, O’Brien K S, Liu S, Gibson K (2021), ‘Definitions of Culturally and Linguistically (CALD): A Literature Review of Epidemiological Research in Australia’, , in, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(2):737

Reavell J & Fazil Q (2017), ‘The epidemiology of PTSD and depression in refugee minors who have resettled in developed countries’, Journal of Mental Health, 26(1):74-83

Rishbeth C, Blachnicka-Ciacek D & Darling J (2019), ‘Participation and wellbeing in urban greenspace: ‘curating sociability for refugees and asylum seekers’, in, Geoforum, 106:125-134

Roncancio I V, Temper L, Sterlin J, Smolyar N L, Sellers S, Moore M, Melgar-Melgar R, Larson J, Horner C, Erickson J D, Egler M, Brown P G, Boulot E, Beigi T & Babcock M (2019), ‘From the Anthropocene to Mutual Thinking: An Agenda for Higher Education in the Ecozoic’, in, Sustainability, 11(12:3312

Sahu G & Das S (2020), ‘Regenerative Agriculture: Future of Sustainable Food Production’, in, Biotica Research Today, 2(8):745-748.

Sanford C (2020), ‘The Regenerative Education System and Practice – Part 1’, Carol Sanford Blog, accessed 27 September 2023

Sari M (2012), ‘Sense of School Belonging Among Elementary School Students’, in, Cukurova University Faculty of Education Journal, 40(1):1-411

Sawrikar P & Katz I (2009), ‘How useful is the term ‘Culturally and Linguistically Diverse’ (CALD) in Australian research, practice, and policy discourse?’,  Social Policy Research Centre (SPRC), University of New South Wales, NSW

Schweitzer R D, Mackay S, Hancox D, Khawaja N G (2018), ‘Fostering belonging in a CALD school environment: learning from research collaboration with a refugee and migrant school community’, Intercultural Education, 32(6):593-609

Schmidt J (2022), ‘The Place of Ruin Within Wild Pedagogies’, in, Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, 25:55-69

Schmitz O, Sylven M, Atwood T, Bakker E, Berzaghi F, Brodle J, Cromsigt J, Davies A, Leroux S, Schepers F, Smith F, Stark S, Svenning J C, Tilker A & Ylanne H (2023), ‘Tropic rewilding can expand natural climate solutions’, in, Nature Climate Change, 13:324-333

Scott S, Gray T, Charlton J & Millard S (2022), ‘The Impact of Time Spent in Natural Spaces on Children’s Language, Communication and Social Skills: A Systematic Review’, in, int J Environ Res Public Health, 19(19):12038

Shephard S & Musaka G (2020), ‘Working with At-Risk Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Young People in Australia: Risk Factors, Programming and Service Delivery’, in, Criminal Justice Policy Review, 32(5):469-483

Shephard S, Bailey A & Musaka G (2021), ‘The Experiences and Perspectives of African-Australian Community Service Providers Who Work with At-Risk and Justice-Involved Youth’, International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology,  66(13-14):1432-1453

SIFR (2023), ‘Refugee Education Support Program’, Schools in for Refugees, accessed 24 September 2023

Smith G A (2002), ‘Place Based Education: Learning to be where we are’, in, Phi Delta Kappan, 83(8):584-594

Snow P, Graham L J, Mclean E J & Serry T A (2019), ‘The oral language and reading comprehension skills of adolescents in flexible learning programmes’, in, International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 22(4):425-434

Spaajj R, Broerse J, Oxford C, Luguetti C, MacLachlan F, McDonald B, Klepac B, Lymbery L, Bishara J & Pankowiak A (2019), ‘Sport, Refugees and Forced Migration: A Critical Review of the Literature’, in, Front Sports Act Living, 1(47)

Sustainability Victoria (2023), ‘Connecting communities with art that inspires’, Sustainability Victoria, accessed 28 September 2023

Stokel-Walker C (2022), ‘What is regenerative capitalism and why is it important?”, in, World Economic Forum, accessed 16 August 2023.,rather%20than%20exploit%20and%20destroy.

Street Art News (2015), ‘The Refugee’, Street Art News, accessed 28 September 2023

Taylor S & Sidhu R K (2011), ‘Supporting refugee students in schools: what constitutes inclusive education?’, in, International Journal of Inclusive Education, 16(1):39-56

Terhaag S & Guy S (2020), ‘The mental health of refugee children in Australia’, [podcast], Emerging Minds, accessed 23 September 2023

Thomas J, McGinty S, Riele K & Wilson K (2017), ‘Distance travelled: outcomes and evidence in flexible learning options’, in, The Australian Educational Researcher, 44:443-460

Tozer M, Khawaja N G & Schweitzer (2017), ‘Protective Factors Contributing to Wellbeing Among Refugee Youth in Australia’, in, Journal of Psychologists and Counsellors in Schools, 28(1):66-83

UNDP (2019), Human Development Report, United Nations Development Programme, E-Book

UNICEF (2023), Prospects for Children in the Polycrisis: A 2023 Global Outlook, UNICEF, Florence, Italy.

UNICEF (2023), ‘The State of the World’s Children 2023’, UNICEF, Florence, Italy.

Uptin J, Wright J & Harwood V (2013), ‘’It felt like I was a black dot on white paper’, : examining young formers refugees’ experiences of entering Australian high schools’, in, The Australian Educational Researcher, 40:125-137,

Van Kooy J & Butler C (2021), ‘Disrupted CALD youth employment transitions: a mixed-methods study’, [Conference Paper], AMES Australia, NSW

VDET (2019), ‘Supporting students from refugee backgrounds’, Victoria Department of Education, accessed 24 September 2023

Velempini  K & Kethoilwe M J (2022), ‘Experiences with Wild Pedagogies in Teacher Education’, in, Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, 25:155-174

Veletsianos G & Houlden S (2020), ‘Radical Flexibility and Relationality as Responses to Education in Ties of Crisis’, in, Post Digital Science and Education, 2:849-862

VFST (2019), School is where you need to be equal and learn: Insights from Students of Refugee Backgrounds on Learning and Engagement in Victorian Secondary Schools, The Victoria Foundation for Survivors of Torture, Brunswick, Victoria

Victorian Multicultural Commission (2015), Engaging Our Youth: Our Future, VMC, Victoria

Victorian Multicultural Commission (2020), Meet Me in the Middle: Facilitating the Employment of Young Multicultural People in Post COVID19 Victoria,  VMC, Victoria

VMC (2019), Victorian Multicultural Commission: Annual Report 2019-20, Victorian Multicultural Commission, Melbourne Victoria

Wang S, Chayn Sun Q, Martin C, Cai W, Liu Y, Duckham M, Hurley J, Amati M & Choy S (2023), ‘Tracking the settlement patterns of Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) population in Australia: A Census-based study from 2001 to 2021’, in, Cities, 141(104482):1-13

Ward K (2019), ‘Decolonising Rewilding: Dr Kim Ward’, Relational Thinking, accessed 21 September 2023

Wolff L, Skarstein T & Skarstein F (2021), ‘The Mission of Early Childhood Education in the Anthropocene’, in,  Education Sciences, 10(2):27

Whiting K & Park H (2023), ‘This is why ‘Polycrisis’ is a useful way of looking at the world right now’, World Economic Forum, accessed 28 August 2023,

Wild Pedagogies (2023), ‘Transnatural Perspectives’, Wildpedagogies, accessed 29 September 2023

Wild Pedagogies (2023), ‘Rainbow Arch’, Rainbow Pedagogies, accessed 29 September 2023

Wild Pedagogies, (2023), ‘A Walking Colloquium’, Wild Pedagogies, accessed 29 September 2023

Wooltorton S, Guenther J, Poelina A, Blaise M, Collard L & White P (2022), ‘Learning Regenerative cultures: Indigenous nations in higher education in Australia’, in, Asia Pacific Education Review, 23:639-651

Yared H, Grove C & Chapman D (2022), ‘Who Belongs in Schools? How the Education System Fails Racially Marginalised Students’, in, Research for Inclusive Quality Education,

 Young D & Block K (2023), ‘Count Me In: a sports participation intervention promoting inclusion for young people from migrant backgrounds in Australia’, in, Sport in Society, 26(7):1227-1249

YPSFL (2022), ‘About’, Young Peoples Sustainable Futures Lab, accessed 20 September 2023,

Zimmer-Gembeck M, Chipuer H M, Hanisch M & McGregor L (2006), ‘Relationships at school and stage-environment fit as resources for adolescent engagement and achievement’, in, Journal of Adolescence, 29(6):911-933